Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Six Elements You Should Know from The TOYOTA MIRAI to Work

RealAutoTips. - Hydrogen car has been debuting by Honda, Toyota and Hyundai in the past year. The Toyota Mirai is the biggest car launched this fall will hit U.S. streets. As we know that for years been the white whales of the clean-vehicle set for Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). About 300 miles this car emit only water; they fill in three minutes (vs. up to several hours for a traditional electric); and their range is comparable to gas-powered cars.

Inside An Electric CarIllustration by Graham Murdoch
Because of infrastructure concerns, automakers have avoided them.  In the U.S., mostly in Southern California, There are only a dozen hydrogen filling stations. That just may drive a national trend. That, too, is changing. Last year, the state set aside $200 million to build 100 more hookups by 2020.

How It Works

1. Hydrogen Tank

11 pounds of hydrogen fuel under very high pressure (10,000 psi) stored in two carbon-fiber tanks. Sensors trigger shutoff valves to keep hydrogen from escaping the tank when it in emergencies (e.g., a crash).

2. Airflow

A crucial component in the mix - in the intake grill sends oxygen - to the fuel cell stack

3. Power Control Unit

The power control unit draws electricity from the fuel stack and sends it to the motor show that it is as the car’s energy manager and brain. It draws stored energy from the battery for an extra boost during acceleration.

4. Battery

The nickel-metal hydride battery in the Mirai stores only excess energy for use during ignition and acceleration. It is show that it is unlike in tradi­tional electric cars.

5. Electric Motor

It polarizes the stator—a stationary ring around the rotor—to create a rotating magnetic field when as electricity passes through the motor. Align with that field and spin at the same rate to power the drivetrain when magnets mounted on the rotor. The faster the field spins and the faster the car goes when the more electricity that’s sent to the motor. The motor generates electricity for the battery when braking and coasting.

6. Fuel Cell

Fuel cells contain an anode, cathode, and a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in their most basic form. Engineers string them together in a series—or a stack because each cell generates little voltage on its own. The Mirai’s stack contains 370 cells, each working to transform stored chemical energy into electricity.  Here’s how. hydrogen runs through a flow field plate to the anode in each cell. There, a platinum-cobalt catalyst splits the hydrogen molecules into positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.

The PEM then permits the hydrogen ions to pass through to the cathode, but it stops electrons, forcing them instead to travel an outer circuit, creating an electric current. With oxygen at the cathode to form water, electrons and ions meet up which is emitted primarily as vapor.

Source: Popsci, January 11, 2015

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